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Knee

Knee Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery that is done through tiny incisions and allows the doctor to treat a variety of disorders in the knee joint. Originally developed in Japan in the 1960s, arthroscopy was quickly adopted by surgeons in the United States and throughout the world. Though initially used only in the knee, the procedure has been adapted to other joints with great success – most commonly the shoulder, elbow, hip and ankle.

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Meniscus Tears

The knee joint is made up of three bones- t he thigh bone (femur), the shin bone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). Two types of cartilage are present in the knee. The first is the “hard” cartilage, termed “articular cartilage” that covers the ends of the bones and helps with smooth joint motion. When the articular cartilage wears down with age this is called “osteoarthritis.” The knee joint also contains the “soft” cartilage, termed “meniscus cartilage.” The meniscus cartilage sits between the femur and tibia, and is firm and rubbery, almost like a rubber washer.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the four main ligaments in the knee. The ACL connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia) and functions to stabilize the knee. Although the ACL is not necessary for simple activities, such as walking, a functional ACL is required to participate in activities that require sudden starting and stopping, cutting motions, twisting or pivoting. These higher-level activities include sports like soccer, basketball, and tennis; recreational activities such as hiking and surfing; work activity that requires climbing and work on uneven surfaces.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately, it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

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ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

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Knee Ligament Injuries

The knee is made up of two sets of strong ligaments that help to stabilize the joint. The collateral ligaments include the medial (or inside) and lateral (or outside) collateral ligaments, which connect the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia) and stabilize the knee. The cruciate ligaments (anterior or “front”, and posterior or ‘back”) cross in the inside of the knee and prevent excessive front-to-back and twisting motions. Additional stabilizing structures also play a role in normal knee function.

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Cartilage Injuries

The knee joint is made up of three bones – the thigh bone (femur), the shin bone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The ends of the bones are covered by a hard, white, Teflon-like tissue known as the “articular cartilage” that helps the bones glide smoothly with joint motion. When the articular cartilage wears down with age, this is called osteoarthritis. The articular cartilage may also be damaged during a twisting or pivoting injury, or by a direct impact to the knee. These injuries are known as chondral injuries.

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Patello-femoral Disorders

The knee joint is made up of three bones – the thigh bone (femur), the shin bone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The joint between that back of the patella and front of the femur is known as the patello-femoral joint.

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Knee Arthritis

The knee joint is made up of three bones – the thigh bone (femur), the shin bone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The ends of the bones are covered by a hard, white, Teflon-like tissue known as the articular cartilage that helps the bones glide smoothly with joint motion. When the articular cartilage wears down with age this is called osteoarthritis. In addition to loss of cartilage, bone spurs often develop in the joint in patients with osteoarthritis.

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Knee Fractures

The knee joint is made up of three bones – the thigh bone (femur), the shin bone (tibia) and the kneecap (patella). Fractures occurring around the knee are usually due to a significant traumatic injury in younger patients, and simple falls in older patients with poor bone quality. The fracture may involve the end of the femur (distal femur) or the upper part of the tibia (proximal tibia) at the knee joint. Fractures may also involve the patella.

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Knee Replacement

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.

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