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Shoulder

Shoulder Arthroscopy

Shoulder arthroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that is done with special instruments through tiny incisions. The arthroscope is a fiber optic camera that is inserted into the shoulder with the patient anesthetized. This allows the surgeon to view structures in and around the shoulder and perform a variety of procedures to repair injured structures.

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Shoulder Impingement Syndrome/Bursiitis

Impingement syndrome is a common condition causing pain, loss of motion, and limitation of function in the shoulder. It may be due to an injury, such as a fall, or more commonly from overuse of the shoulder, particularly from repetitive overhead arm motions. Most cases of impingement syndrome can be treated successfully with rest, use of anti-inflammatory medicine, cortisone injections, and physical therapy exercises. In certain severe cases surgery is required to alleviate the condition.

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Rotator Cuff Tear

The rotator cuff is critical to normal, healthy shoulder function, as it plays a vital role in stabilizing the shoulder joint during arm motion. Tears of the rotator cuff are some of the most frequent injuries treated by orthopaedic surgeons, and these tears typically occur in patients older than 45-50 years of age. “Partial-thickness” or incomplete, tears of the rotator cuff can initially be treated non-operatively with rest, anti-inflammatories, cortisone injections, and physical therapy. “Full-thickness” or completes tears are usually recommended for surgery as these tears lack the ability to heal without surgical repair.

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Rotator Cuff Repair

Rotator cuff is the group of tendons in the shoulder joint providing support and enabling wider range of motion. Major injury to these tendons may result in tear of these tendons and the condition is called as rotator cuff tear. It is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in middle aged adults and older individuals.

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AC (Acromio-clavicular) Joint Arthritis

Three bones make up the shoulder girdle – the humerus (or arm bone), the scapula (or shoulder blade), and the clavicle (or collar bone). The upper part of the humerus attaches to a socket on the side of the acromion called the glenoid and forms the shoulder joint, termed the “glenohumeral joint.” Above the glenohumeral joint and on the top part of the shoulder, the clavicle attaches to another part of the scapula called the acromion at a smaller joint called the acromio-clavicular (AC) joint. The AC joint is the only boney attachment of the scapula to the rest of the skeleton.

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Labral Tears (SLAP Tears)

The shoulder is a “ball & socket” joint. The upper part of the arm bone (humerus) forms a ball that sits in a socket on the side of the shoulder blade (scapula). The rim of the socket is surrounded like a gasket by a ring of firm, rubbery cartilage called the labral. The labral functions to deepen the socket and provide stability to the shoulder joint. It serves as the attachment site for ligaments. In addition, the long head of the biceps tendon attaches to the superior (or top) part of the labral.

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Biceps Tendonitis

The biceps muscle is located in the front of the arm and is active in motion of both the shoulder and the elbow. The muscle has two heads (“bi-“) that originate separately from different locations on the front of the shoulder. The long head of the biceps originates as a tendon attached to the top of the socket of the shoulder joint. From here the tendon passes through the shoulder joint, over the upper end of the arm, and through a groove in the arm bone at the front of the shoulder, which is known as the bicipital groove.

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Shoulder Instability / Shoulder Dislocations

The shoulder is a “ball & socket” joint. The upper part of the arm bone (humerus) forms a ball shape that sits in a small cup, or socket (called the “glenoid”), on the side of the shoulder blade. The rim of the socket is surrounded by a ring of firm, rubbery cartilage called the labral. The labral functions to deepen the socket and to stabilize the ball in the socket. It also serves as the attachment site for ligaments that stabilize the shoulder joint.

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Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)

The shoulder is a “ball & socket” joint. The upper part of the arm bone (humerus) forms a ball shape that sits in a small cup, or socket (called the “glenoid”), on the side of the shoulder blade. The shoulder joint is enclosed by soft tissue that surrounds the shoulder like a plastic bag. This soft tissue bag is called the “joint capsule.” Adhesive capsulitis, also known as “frozen shoulder” occurs when the joint capsule becomes inflamed and ultimately thickens.

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Shoulder (AC) Separation

Three bones make up the shoulder girdle – the humerus (or arm bone), the scapula (or shoulder blade), and the clavicle (or collar bone). The upper part of the humerus attaches to a socket on the side of the shoulder blade (called the glenoid) and forms the shoulder joint, known as the “glenohumeral joint.”

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Clavicle Fractures

Three bones make up the shoulder girdle – the humerus (or arm bone), the scapula (or shoulder blade), and the clavicle (or collar bone). The upper part of the humerus attaches to a socket on the side of the shoulder blade (called the glenoid) and forms the shoulder joint, known as the “glenohumeral joint.”

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Shoulder (Proximal Humeral) Fractures

The upper part of the arm bone (or “humerus”) is commonly involved in fractures of the shoulder. The “proximal” or upper part of the humerus is ball-shaped and fits into a socket on the side of the shoulder blade to form the shoulder joint. There are two bumps on the side of the ball called “tuberosity’s” that are attachment sites of the rotator cuff tendons that help to stabilize the shoulder. Proximal humeral fractures can disrupt normal shoulder function by altering normal anatomy, detaching the tuberosities and thereby affecting rotator cuff function, and creating stiffness or loss of motion in the shoulder.

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Shoulder Arthritis

The shoulder joint is a “ball & socket” joint made up of the upper part of the arm bone (termed the humeral head) that forms a ball shape and fits into a shallow socket (termed the glenoid), on the side of the shoulder blade. The surfaces of the humeral head and the glenoid are covered by a smooth, Teflon-like tissue called the articular cartilage. This tissue layer allows the ends of the bones to glide smoothly against one another during shoulder motion.

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Shoulder Replacement

Shoulder joint replacement is a surgical procedure performed to replace the damaged shoulder joint with the artificial joint parts. Shoulder joint replacement is usually performed when the joint is severely damaged by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, rotator cuff tear arthropathy, avascular necrosis and failed former shoulder replacement surgery.

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